Black Phosphorus

Black Phosphorus Black phosphorus is a semiconductor with a band gap of ~0.3 eV. The layers are stacked together via van der Waals interactions and can be exfoliated into thin 2D layers down to single layer phosphorus (phosphorene). We have also succeeded in the growth of an Phosphorus-Arsenic alloy which has a similar unit cell with the black phosphorus. For more information you can visit the product page of the Phosphorus-Arsenic alloy. To buy black phosphorus crystals please click here.

The black phosphorus crystals produced at HQ Graphene have a typical lateral size of ~0.6-0.8 cm and have a metallic appearance. Due to the large flat surface the crystals are ideal for optical (ARPES) and scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM, ...) measurements. A selection of peer review publications on the black phosphorus we sell can be found below.

Black Phosphorus crystal properties
Crystal size ~7 mm
Electrical properties Semiconductor
Crystal structure Orthorhombic C
Unit cell parameters a = 0.331 nm, b= 1.048, c = 0.437 nm, α = β = γ = 90°
Type Synthetic
Purity >99.995 %
Characterized by XRD, Raman, EDX
More information? Please contact us by email or phone

The single crystal black phosphorus is characterized using:

XRD: single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (D8 Venture Bruker and D8 Advance Bruker)
EDX: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for stoichiometric analysis
Raman: 785nm Raman system

Raman, XRD and EDX on Black Phosphorus:

Click on an image to zoom

X-ray diffraction on a black phosphorus single crystal aligned along the (001) plane. XRD was performed at room temperature using a D8 Venture Bruker. The 4 XRD peaks correspond, from left to right, to (00l) with l = 1, 2, 3, 4

Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) of a single crystal black phosphorus. X-ray diffraction was performed at room temperature using a D8 Venture Bruker.

Stoichiometric analysis of a single crystal black phosphorus by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

Raman spectrum of a single crystal black phosphorus. Measurement was performed with a 785nm Raman system at room temperature.

HQ Graphene Wiki on:

Black Phosphorus

1. Welch, K., et al. "Comparison of Hall Mobility and Carrier Density of Thin Black Phosphorus Exfoliated from Bulk Crystals Provided by Various Vendors." 2022 IEEE USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (Joint with AP-S Symposium). IEEE, 2022.

2. Laxmi, V., et al. "Protecting black phosphorus with selectively adsorbed graphene quantum dot layers." Applied Surface Science 538 (2021): 148089.

3. Vu, T.H.Y., et al. "Visualization of Strain-Induced Landau Levels in a Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterostructure." arXiv preprint arXiv:2211.04014 (2022).

4. Liu, B., et al. "Interface electronic structure between aluminum and black phosphorus." Results in Physics 18 (2020): 103222.


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