Black Phosphorus

Black Phosphorus Black phosphorus is a semiconductor with a band gap of ~0.3 eV. The layers are stacked together via van der Waals interactions and can be exfoliated into thin 2D layers down to single layer phosphorus (phosphorene). We have also succeeded in the growth of an Phosphorus-Arsenic alloy which has a similar unit cell with the black phosphorus. For more information you can visit the product page of the Phosphorus-Arsenic alloy (click here). To buy black phosphorus crystals please click here.

The black phosphorus crystals produced at HQ Graphene have a typical lateral size of ~0.6-0.8 cm and have a metallic appearance. Due to the large flat surface the crystals are ideal for optical (ARPES) and scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM, ...) measurements. A selection of peer review publications on the black phosphorus we sell can be found below.

Black phosphorus crystal properties
Crystal size ~10 mm
Electrical properties Semiconductor
Crystal structure Orthorhombic C
Unit cell parameters a = 0.331 nm, b= 1.048, c = 0.437 nm, α = β = γ = 90°
Type Synthetic
Purity >99.995 %
Characterized by XRD, Raman, EDX
More information? Please contact us by email or phone

The single crystal black phosphorus is characterized using:

XRD: single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (D8 Venture Bruker and D8 Advance Bruker)
EDX: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for stoichiometric analysis
Raman: 785nm Raman system

Raman, XRD and EDX on black phosphorus:

Click on an image to zoom

X-ray diffraction on a black phosphorus single crystal aligned along the (001) plane. XRD was performed at room temperature using a D8 Venture Bruker. The 4 XRD peaks correspond, from left to right, to (00l) with l = 1, 2, 3, 4

Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) of a single crystal black phosphorus. X-ray diffraction was performed at room temperature using a D8 Venture Bruker.

Stoichiometric analysis of a single crystal black phosphorus by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

Raman spectrum of a single crystal black phosphorus. Measurement was performed with a 785nm Raman system at room temperature.

HQ Graphene Wiki on:

black phosphorus

1. Jimin Kim et al.,"Observation of tunable band gap and anisotropic Dirac semimetal state in black phosphorus", Science 349 (6249), 723-726 (2015), link to article:

2. Shumao Cui et al., "Ultrahigh sensitivity and layer-dependent sensing performance of phosphorene-based gas sensors", Nature Comm. 6, 8632 (2015), link to article:

3.Steven P. Koenig et al., "Electron Doping of Ultrathin Black Phosphorus with Cu Adatoms", Nanoletters 16 (4), pp 2145-2151 (2016), link to article: "


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